Where are the inefficiencies?
Once the process model is revealed, performance analysis techniques help people detect the bottlenecks in the organization.
What is performance analysis?

The process models can be analyzed to assess their quality. Such an analysis can be conducted either for verification (correctness of the system or process), or performance (causes for the delays in the processes).

The performance analysis aims at improving processes concerning time, cost, or quality. One should note that it heavily relies on the availability of high-quality models. If the process model describes the idealized version of reality, the performance analysis might be useless as the number of deviations would be significantly high.

What to analyze?

The performance of a process or organization can be defined in different ways. Typically, three dimensions of performance are identified: time, cost, and quality. For each of these performance dimensions, different Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can be defined.

Time Dimension
  • The lead time (also referred to as flow time) is the total time from the creation of the case to the completion of the case.
  • The service time is the time worked on a case. The service time per activity can be measured. In the case of concurrency, the overall service time may be longer than the lead time.
  • The waiting time is the time a case is waiting for a resource to become available.
  • The synchronization time is the time an activity is not yet fully enabled and waiting for an external trigger or another parallel branch.
Cost Dimension
Performance indicators can also be defined for the cost dimension. The costs of executing an activity may be fixed or depend on the type of resource used, its utilization, or the duration of the activity. Resource costs may depend on the utilization of resources. A key performance indicator in most processes is the average utilization of resources over a given period.
Quality Dimension
The quality dimension typically focuses on the “product” or “service” delivered to the customer. Like costs, this can be measured in different ways. One example is customer satisfaction measured through questionnaires. Another example is the average number of complaints per case or the number of product defects.